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This glossary covers the terminology of words used throughout the site.

Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) Any pharmaceutically active material from organic, inorganic, microbiological, animal or plant origin, including that produced by recombinant DNA methods, intended for use in the manufacture of a medicinal product for human and or veterinary use.
Air Lock Transfer device for isolators which facilitates the transfer of products into and out of the isolator (workspace) whilst minimizing the transfer of contaminants.
Antechamber Transfer device for isolators and glove box systems which facilitates the transfer of products into and out of the workspace whilst minimizing the transfer of contaminants.
Analyzer for Moisture Measurement (H2O Analyzer) Dedicated sensor to monitor the amount of trace moisture in glovebox systems. The measurement principle is based on the decomposition of moisture by an electrical current (electrolysis) which results in fast response times, minimal cross-sensitivities with other volatile compounds and practically unlimited life-time. Need your analyzers recalibrated? Read more
Analyzer for Oxygen Measurement (O2 Analyzer) Dedicated sensor to monitor the amount of trace oxygen in glovebox systems. The sensing head consists of a ZrO2 crystal on which a thin platinum layer has been coated. When heated to around 500°C oxygen molecules are ionized at the platinum surface and migrate through the crystal. The resulting current electrical current is proportional to the oxygen concentration and is displayed in ppm values on the operation screen of the glovebox.
 Audit Systematic and independent examination to determine whether quality activities and related results comply with quality policy and if this policy has been implemented effectively. MBRAUN undergoes periodical audits from certified institutes to assure the quality of its products and services.
Automation Automation is the use of control systems and information technologies to reduce the need for human work in the production of goods and services. In the scope of industrialization, automation is a step beyond mechanization. Whereas mechanization provides human operators with machinery to assist them with the muscular requirements of work, automation greatly decreases the need for human sensory and mental requirements as well. Automation plays an increasingly important role in production and even in research as processes can be carried out at much greater speed and accuracy.
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 Batch (or lot) A defined quantity of a material produced in a process or series of processes so that it is expected to be homogeneous within specified limits. In the case of continuous production the batch (or lot) may be defined by a fixed quantity or time.
Batch number (or lot number) A distinctive combination of numbers and/or letters which specifically identifies a batch or lot and from which the production history can be determined.
Batteries An electrical battery is one or more electrochemical cells that convert stored chemical energy into electrical energy. There are two types of batteries: primary batteries (disposable batteries), which are designed to be used once and discarded, and secondary batteries (rechargeable batteries), which are designed to be recharged and used multiple times. MBraun offers system solutions for secondary batteries specifically Li-Ion and Li-Polymer batteries.
Balances A weighing scale or balance is a measuring instrument for determining the weight or mass of an object.
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Calibration Calibration is a comparison between measurements – one of known magnitude or correctness made or set with one device and another measurement made in as similar a way as possible with a second device.The device with the known or assigned correctness is called the standard. The second device is the unit under test, test instrument, or any of several other names for the device being calibrated.
Chillers A chiller is a machine that removes heat from a liquid via a vapor-compression or absorption refrigeration cycle. This liquid can then be circulated through a heat exchanger to cool air or equipment as required.
Cleaning in Place A remote controlled, semi-automatic or automatic, validatable, built-in system for cleaning surfaces.
Closed Loop Isolator An Isolator system which does not exchange air or other contaminants during the operation with the adjacent environment. Air or atmosphere inside the system is continuously circulated through filter systems.
Cold Plates An actively cooled surface utilizing water or a refrigerant.
Computerized system A system including computer system, all sensors, transmitters, actuators and wiring needed to control the process.
Conformity Fulfillment of specified requirements.
Contamination The unintended, non-process related, introduction of impurities of a chemical or microbiological nature, or of foreign matter, into or onto a material during production, sampling, packaging or repackaging, storage or transport.
Continuous production A process in which a material, component or compound is continuously produced in a step or series of steps. In a continuous process the batches of raw materials and the process parameters can be statistically, but not necessarily, correlated to the material produced in a given window of time.
Corrective action Action taken to rectify an identified nonconformity, defect or other undesirable situation and to prevent recurrence.
Cross contamination A particular form of contamination in which material from one source contaminates another one.
Cryogenic pumps A cryopump is a vacuum pump that traps gases and vapours by condensing them on a cold surface. They are only effective on some gases, depending on the freezing and boiling points of the gas relative to the cryopump's temperature. In vacuum deposition cryo-pumps are frequently used to reach base-pressure in the range of 10-8 mbar.
Customer Recipient of a product or service provided by the supplier.
Customized Gloveboxes Non-standard, mostly unique, gas-tight, stainless steel enclosures connected to inertgas purifiers.
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Design review Documented, comprehensive and systematic examination of a design to evaluate its capability to fulfill agreed requirements for quality. It will identify problems, if any, and propose the development of solutions. It is an integral part of the quality control system at MBraun.
Desiccant A desiccant is a hygroscopic substance that induces or sustains a state of dryness (desiccation) in its local vicinity in a moderately well-sealed container. Pre-packaged desiccant is most commonly used to remove excessive humidity that would normally degrade or even destroy products sensitive to moisture. Some commonly used desiccants are: silica gel, activated charcoal, calcium sulfate, calcium chloride, montmorillonite clay, and molecular sieves. In the OLED process solid desiccants (sheet desiccants) and liquid desiccants are frequently used to absorb moisture diffusing into the sealed device.
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Feedthroughs A mechanical device used to carry signals and/or media through an enclosure wall.
Flanges A flange is a standardized external or internal ridge which acts as the mechanical interface for other components and/or machines.
Filter A particulate (gas) filter is a device composed of fibrous materials which removes solid particulates such as dust, pollen, mold, and bacteria from a gas stream. A chemical air filter consists of an absorbent or catalyst for the removal of airborne molecular contaminants such as volatile organic compounds or ozone. Different classes are available, according to standard EN 1822: H10-H14 U15-U17 System to remove aerosols, viable and non-viable particles from the air / atmosphere passing through them.Gloveboxes commonly incorporate HEPA (High efficiency particulate air) and for demanding applications ULPA (Ultra low particulate air) filters.
Fine Chemical Fine chemicals are complex, single, pure chemical substances. They are produced in limited volumes (< 1000 tons/year) and at relatively high prices (> $10/kg) according to exact specifications and formulas, mainly by traditional organic synthesis in multipurpose plants.
Freezers A refrigerator (colloquially freezer) is a common electrical appliance that consists of a thermally insulated compartment and a heat pump (mechanical, electronic, or chemical) that transfers heat from the inside to its external environment so that the inside of the fridge is cooled to a temperature below ambient conditions.
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Glovebox The glovebox is a sealed, gas-tight containment made of stainless steel or acrylic glass. It allows establishing an oxygen and moisture free condition or isolating hazardous gases and/or solid materials from the external atmosphere. Polycarbonate window(s) with integrated gloves enable the operator to access the interior. Materials can be transferred into and out of the glovebox by means of dedicated antechamber designs without breaking the inert conditions.MBRAUN offers a range of standardized glovebox for research and development as wells as completely customized solutions for industrial scale manufacturing.
Gloveport Covers  A gloveport cover is a glovebox accessory which can seal a gloveport hermetically. It is usually used to replace damaged gloves without breaching the inert conditions inside the glovebox.
Gloves  A glove is a garment covering the whole hand. Gloves are made of materials including cloth, knitted or felted wool, leather, latex, neoprene and even kevlar. In glovebox systems gloves are made of butyl rubber and are an integral component to access the interior of the system. They combine toughness, chemical resistance and environmental protection with a large degree of sensitivity and flexibility.
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Hot Plates A hotplate is an actively heated surface with high temperature uniformity and accuracy. Typical applications are drying of materials or curing of sensitive functional coatings.
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Impurity Any component present in the API other than the substance defined as the API.
Inert Gas An inert gas is a gas which does not undergo chemical reactions under a set of given conditions. Per definition all noble gases (He, Ar, Ne, Kr, Rd and Xe) and nitrogen are classified under this term as they often do not react with many substances. Inert gases are used generally to avoid unwanted chemical reactions degrading a sample. These undesirable chemical reactions are often oxidation and hydrolysis reactions with the oxygen and moisture in air.In inertgas systems predominantly nitrogen, followed by Argon and Helium are used.
In-process control Checks performed during production in order to monitor and, if necessary, to adjust the process, including repeating a process step, to ensure that the process performs as expected. The monitoring of the environment or utilities may also be regarded as part of the in-process control.
Inspection Activity such as measuring, examining, testing or gauging one or more characteristics of an entity and comparing the results with specified requirements in order to establish whether conformity is achieved for each characteristic.
Isolator The isolator is a hermetically closed containment acting as a barrier between operating personnel and interior workspace. As a mechanical barrier, windows with gloves and special filter systems are installed.
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Laminar Flow Laminar flow, sometimes known as streamline flow, occurs when a fluid flows without any disruption (turbulence) in parallel layers. Under laminar flow conditions the motion of airborne particles is very orderly with all particles moving at nearly constant speed in straight lines. In fluid dynamics, laminar flow is a flow regime characterized by high momentum diffusion and low momentum convection. Glovebox designers use this fluid regime to create particle-free inert environments as many processes especially in the semiconductor industry are harmed by the presence of particles.
Lamination Lamination is a process which unites two layers of material together. In OLED encapsulation usually two glass sheets or two plastic foils are glued together under vacuum conditions. It stands for the terminal step of the manufacturing process.
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Manufacturing Manufacturing is the use of machines, tools and labor to produce goods for use or sale. The term may refer to a range of human activity, from handicraft to high tech, but is most commonly applied to industrial production, in which raw materials are transformed into finished goods on a large scale. Such finished goods may be used for manufacturing other, more complex products, such as aircraft, household appliances or automobiles, or sold to wholesalers, who in turn sell them to retailers, who then sell them to end users – the "consumers".
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Negative Pressure Isolator A negative pressure isolator is a hermetically closed isolator system that operates at a pressure level less than the atmospheric. This technology is used as user protection during normal operation and in the event of a failure of the isolator.
Nonconformity Nonfulfillment of specified requirement
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O-Rings An O-ring, also known as a packing, or a toric joint, is a mechanical gasket in the shape of a torus; it is a loop of elastomer with a disc-shaped cross-section, designed to be seated in a groove and compressed during assembly between two or more parts, creating a seal at the interface
Open System Isolator / Open Loop Isolator An open loop isolator is a system which can exchange air or contaminants during the operation with the adjacent atmosphere.
OPV An organic photovoltaic cell (OPVC) is a photovoltaic cell that uses organic electronics - a branch of electronics that deals with conductive organic polymers or small organic molecules for light absorption and charge transport. The optical absorption coefficient of organic molecules is high, so a large amount of light can be absorbed with a small amount of materials. The main disadvantages associated with organic photovoltaic cells are low efficiency, low stability and low strength compared to inorganic photovoltaic cells. The manufacturing process is very similar to the one of OLEDs whereas most materials are sensitive to moisture and oxygen which requires the device to be encapsulated.
OLED An OLED (organic light-emitting diode) is a light-emitting diode (LED) in which the emissive electroluminescent layer is a film of organic compound which emit light in response to an electric current. This layer of organic semiconductor material is situated between two electrodes. Generally, at least one of these electrodes is transparent. Several device types and structures have been established in recent years whereas all have in common that they utilize air sensitive materials making it mandatory to encapsulate them.
Ovens An oven is a thermally insulated chamber used for the heating, baking or drying of a substance. Ovens for industrial use are mainly vacuum or convection ovens.
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Physical Vapor Deposition  Physical vapor deposition (PVD) is a variety of vacuum deposition and is a general term used to describe any of a variety of methods to deposit thin films by the condensation of a vaporized form of the desired film material onto various workpiece surfaces (e.g., onto semiconductor wafers). The coating method involves purely physical processes such as high temperature vacuum evaporation with subsequent condensation, or plasma sputter bombardment rather than involving a chemical reaction at the surface to be coated as in chemical vapor deposition.
PLED A derivate of OLEDs using polymeric materials instead of small molecules as an emissive electroluminescent layer
Plasma Burners A plasma burner or plasma torch is a continuously operating device for generating a directed flow of plasma. The plasma jet can be used for applications such as plasma cutting, plasma spraying, plasma arc waste disposal and fusing of materials with high melting points.
PLC A programmable logic controller (PLC) or programmable controller is a digital computer used for automation of electromechanical processes, such as control of machinery on factory assembly lines. Unlike general-purpose computers, the PLC is designed for multiple inputs and output arrangements, extended temperature ranges, immunity to electrical noise, and resistance to vibration and impact. Programs to control machine operation are typically stored in battery-backed-up or non-volatile memory. A PLC is an example of a hard real time system since output results must be produced in response to input conditions within a limited time, otherwise unintended operation will result.
Positive Pressure Isolator A positive pressure isolator is a hermetically closed isolator system that operates at a pressure level higher than the atmospheric. This technology is used for the protection of products inside the isolator from outside contaminants.
Preventive Action Action taken to eliminate the causes of a potential nonconformity, defect or other undesirable situation in order to prevent occurrence.
Production  Is a pseudonym for manufacturing.
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Qualification (equipment) The action of proving that any equipment is properly installed, works correctly and consistently produces the expected results according to the specified requirements. Qualification is part of, but not limited to, the validation of a process.
Quality Totality of features and characteristics of a product or service and its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs. Suitable quality is determined by product users, clients or customers, not by society in general. It is not related to cost and adjectives or descriptors such "high" and "poor" are not applicable.
Quality Assurance Quality assurance (QA) refers to the planned and systematic activities implemented in a quality system so that quality requirements for a product or service will be fulfilled. It is the systematic measurement, comparison with a standard, monitoring of processes and an associated feedback loop that confers error prevention. This can be contrasted with quality control which is focused on process outputs.
Quality control Quality control, or QC for short, is a process by which entities review the quality of all factors involved in production. This approach places an emphasis on three aspects – controls (job management, defined and well managed processes, performance and integrity criteria), competence (knowledge, skills, experience, and qualifications) and soft elements (personnel integrity, confidence, organizational culture, motivation). Quality control emphasizes testing of products to uncover defects and reporting to management who make the decision to allow or deny product release, whereas quality assurance attempts to improve and stabilize production (and associated processes) to avoid, or at least minimize, issues which led to the defect(s) in the first place
Quality function Quality function is the sum total of activities from quality assurance and quality control.
Quality system Organizational structure, procedures, processes and resources needed to implement quality management.
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Reprocessing Reprocessing is the treatment of any batch or sub-batch of materials by repeating the same process steps from a defined stage of production.
Reworking The treatment of a batch or sub-batch of materials of unacceptable quality, by using a process other than that used to produce the original material, so that its quality may be made acceptable.
Rapid Transfer Port (RTP) A Rapid Transfer Port is a double door transfer system that consists of two main components – the alpha assembly and the beta assembly. The alpha assembly is normally mounted to the cell wall of a contained environment and the beta assembly is mobile. When the two assemblies are connected, materials can be rapidly transferred into and out of the environment without contaminating the workspace or releasing harmful materials to the environment.
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Supplier Organization that provides a product or service to the customer.
Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) A standard operating procedure is a documented instruction to support correct and consistent performance of activities.
Stainless Steel Stainless steel, also known as inox steel or inox from French "inoxydable", is defined as a steel alloy with a minimum of 10.5% to 11% chromium content by mass. There are different grades and surface finishes of stainless steel to suit the environment the alloy must endure. Stainless steel is used where both the properties of steel and resistance to corrosion are required. For gloveboxes typically stainless steel type 1.4301 (SUS 304) is used as it endures all commonly used solvents as well as organic and inorganic acids. For isolators the alloy of choice is 1.4401 (SUS 316L) as its corrosion resistance is excellent in a range of atmospheric environments and many corrosive media.
Sterilization in Place (SIP) Sterilization in Place describes cleaning processes for machinery and equipment – in particular in pharmaceutical and biological production environments. Thereby all surfaces which are in contact with the product are sterilized without dismantling the closed environment.
Solvent Removal Systems A solvent removal system is a dedicated scrubber in inertgas technology which separates volatile solvents from a gas stream. Standard systems use a non-regenerable active charcoal loading to absorb the solvent vapors whereas more advanced systems are equipped with fully regenerable and sometimes even redundant scrubbers units with specific molsieve loading.
Solvent Purification Systems (SPS) A solvent purification system is a device mainly used in laboratories to dry solvents to low ppm levels by means of flushing them through dedicated columns filled with an absorber material. The drying process refrains from using any kind of thermal processes (distillation) to remove the moisture from the bulk solvent making it specifically interesting for easily inflammable materials.
Spin Coater  A spin coater is a coating tool used to apply uniform thin films to flat substrates. In short, an excess amount of a solution is placed on the substrate, which is then rotated at high speed in order to spread the fluid by centrifugal force.
Static Eliminators A static eliminator is a device or tool that is used to neutralize and restore the electrical balance in a wide range of industrial applications like cleaning dust and getting rid of materials that stick to products. Commonly used types are based corona-discharge units or soft X-Ray devices.
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Thin Film A thin film is a layer of material ranging from fractions of a nanometer (monolayer) to several micrometers in thickness. Electronic semiconductor devices and optical coatings are the main applications benefiting from thin film construction.
Titanium Welding Titanium is a low density, biocompatible and corrosion-resistant (including sea water, aqua regia and chlorine) transition metal used in high-tech applications such as aerospace and medical surgery ( implements and implants). The two most useful properties of the metal form are corrosion resistance and the highest strength-to-weight ratio of any metal. It is highly reactive with oxygen and nitrogen so that welding has to be done under pure atmosphere to prevent oxidation which changes the material properties significantly.
Turbulent Flow In fluid dynamics, turbulence or turbulent flow is a flow regime characterized by chaotic and stochastic property changes. This includes low momentum diffusion, high momentum convection, and rapid variation of pressure and velocity in space and time. It stays in total contrast to laminar flow.
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User Requirement Specification Main document supplied by the user (customer) of an isolator against which all qualification to verify compliance is based. Document is the key requirement specification for an isolator that describes the function of the system + criteria or conditions that have to be met.
Ultraviolet Ultraviolet (UV) light is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength shorter than that of visible light, but longer than X-rays, in the range 10 nm to 400 nm, and energies from 3 eV to 124 eV. Many applications rely on the effects of UV whereas the most prominent ones are curing of polymers inks, cleaning of surfaces and sterilization.
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Vacuum Chamber A vacuum chamber is a rigid enclosure from which air and other gases are removed by a vacuum pump. The resulting low pressure is commonly referred to as being a vacuum. A vacuum environment allows researchers to conduct physical experiments or to test mechanical devices which must operate in outer space (for example) or for processes such as vacuum drying or vacuum coating. Chambers often have multiple ports, covered with vacuum flanges to allow instruments or windows to be installed in the walls of the chamber.
Vacuum Ovens A vacuum oven or vacuum furnace is a type of oven that can heat materials, typically metals, to very high temperatures and carry out processes such as brazing, sintering and heat treatment with high consistency and low contamination. In a vacuum furnace the product in the furnace is surrounded by a vacuum. The absence of air or other gases prevents heat transfer with the product through convection and removes a source of contamination. Some of the benefits of a vacuum furnace are uniform temperatures in the range of 1100–1500°C, quick cooling (quenching) of the product and the prevention of rapid product-oxidation at elevated temperatures.
Vacuum Pumps A vacuum pump is a device that removes gas molecules from a sealed volume in order to leave behind a partial vacuum. Pumps can be broadly categorized according to three techniques - positive displacement, momentum transfer and entrapment. Positive displacement pumps use a mechanism to repeatedly expand a cavity, allow gases to flow in from the chamber, seal off the cavity, and exhaust it to the atmosphere. Momentum transfer pumps, also called molecular pumps, use high speed jets of dense fluid or high speed rotating blades to knock gas molecules out of the chamber. Entrapment pumps capture gases in a solid or adsorbed state. This includes cryopumps, getters, and ion pumps.
Valve A valve is a device that regulates, directs or controls the flow of a fluid (gases, liquids, fluidized solids, or slurries) by opening, closing, or partially obstructing various passageways. Valves are technically pipe fittings, but are usually discussed as a separate category. In an open valve, fluid flows in a direction from higher pressure to lower pressure.
Vacuum Deposition Vacuum deposition is a family of processes used to deposit layers atom-by-atom or molecule-by-molecule at sub-atmospheric pressure (vacuum) on a solid surface. The layers may be as thin as one atom to millimeters thick (freestanding structures). There may be multiple layers of different materials (e.g. optical coatings). A thickness of less than one micrometer is generally called a thin film while a thickness greater than one micrometer is called a coating. When the vapor source is from a liquid or solid material the process is called physical vapor deposition (PVD). When the source is from a chemical vapor precursor the process is called low pressure chemical vapor deposition.
Validation Establishing documented evidence which provides a high degree of assurance that a specific process, method or system will consistently produce a result meeting pre-determined specifications and quality attributes.
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Welding Equipment Welding is a fabrication or sculptural process that joins materials, usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing coalescence. This is often done by melting the work pieces and adding a filler material to form a pool of molten material (the weld pool) that cools to become a strong joint, with pressure sometimes used in conjunction with heat, or by itself, to produce the weld. Many different energy sources can be used for welding, including a gas flame, an electric arc, a laser, an electron beam, friction, and ultrasound. While often an industrial process, welding may be performed in many different environments including open air, underwater, vacuum and inert conditions. Welding is a potentially hazardous undertaking and precautions are required to avoid burns, electric shock, vision damage, inhalation of poisonous gases and fumes, and exposure to intense ultraviolet radiation.